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Child Trafficking in South America



This article was written with the help the author: Eaton Turner is a bachelor in English philology and literature at California University. Eaten is currently working as one of the best writers at the EssaysWriters.com He also studies feminine psychology.

Child trafficking is a social issue that is not strange for South America. There is not too much information on the nature of this problem. Child trafficking is done for many reasons. However, the leading one is the sexual exploitation. It is popular in the countries that are both the famous centers of sex tourism and tourist destination. These are Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela. The particularly vulnerable to trafficking children are orphaned and street kids. Moreover, there are such families that are ready to traffic their offspring and engage on a commercial sex activity to receive money. This research paper intends to study the problem of child trafficking in South America, uncover its peculiarities and factors contributing to this negative phenomenon.

Literature Review

In South Africa, the leading factors associated with child trafficking are involvement in a criminal gang, alcohol or drug addiction, sexual or physical abuse, infrequent school attendance and poverty. Moreover, kids can be trafficked internally for the domestic goals; many of them are vulnerable to sexual, physical and verbal abuse. Furthermore, children can be trafficked for illegal adoptions, as sex slaves, workers for organized criminal groups, and soldiers in armed conflicts. Consequently, kids are involved in a dangerous and hard work in the agricultural and mining areas.

Child labor in Argentina is a usual thing, especially when it comes to the manufacturing of a wide range of goods illegally, i. e. gold, coffee, bricks, and sugarcane. Moreover, this country is supposed to be the place for transit, destination, and source of children subjected to exploitation, forced labor, abuse and sex trafficking. Furthermore, central and southern Argentina deals with forced prostitution of teenagers. As to Brazil and Paraguay, they belong to the source areas for Argentine trafficking children. Consequently, victims of trafficking have to work as street vendors or beggars. Moreover, child sex tourism is a usual thing for Buenos Aires. In addition, it is clear that the problem of child trafficking should be solved at the local as well as federal level.

Brazil is also a center of children trafficking, especially during sport events where kids are sexually exploited. Three related topics have been receiving particular attention in the past weeks: human trafficking, child sexual exploitation and sex work. In Brazil, more than 40, 000 children disappear every year. It is approximately 5-6 children per hour.

It is evident that trafficking and sexual exploitation are the results of the problem of displacement and labor. As to child trafficking, it is related to domestic violence, poverty, family stress, and diverted services. Child sex tourism is an issue that dominates in coastal and resort areas of Brazil and comes from Europe. Moreover, Brazil has the reputation of the worst forms of children labor.

Columbia is another country where child trafficking is worsening. Columbian children are trafficked in America. This country is a tourist destination that makes kids as the victims of sexual abuse. For example, in 2015, 54 Columbian children were saved from sex-trafficking. The statistics shows that trafficking is a main reason of missing kids. During this year, 168 Columbians have been rescued from sex-trafficking; and 16 of them have been prevented from prostitution. In most cases, the traffickers pretend as model agents who attract children with money and expensive clothes and then traffic to other countries for work, sexual exploitation or organs.

In Ecuador, 200 children become the victims of trafficking every year; therefore, they have established a visa regime. The problems of violation of kids’ rights, their trafficking and exploitation can not be solved immediately due to its secrecy and complications. Moreover, many officials benefit this negative phenomenon. The International Labor Organization reports about 1.2 million children being trafficked worldwide. One should say that 20% of them are from Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. For example, children from the Dominican Republic and Brazil are trafficked to Argentina. Argentinian, Peruvian, Paraguayan, and Bolivian kids from poor families are forced to work on farms and in sweatshops. One should mention that Bolivia has the worst and the most tiresome kinds of child labor. These are mining, nut and sugar industries. They report about work of 7, 000 children under 14 years old.

During the past year, the Government of Argentina identified a record number of trafficking victims, including many victims of forced labour. It means that the countries of South America are conscious about this social issue, and are ready to struggle against it.

This article explains the peculiarities of child trafficking in South America. First of all, Brazil and Argentina are the leading countries when it comes to child trafficking. The main reasons of this problem are criminal gang, alcohol or drug addiction, sexual or physical abuse, infrequent school attendance and poverty. It has been proved that child trafficking in South America depends on the economic growth. It is a social issue. Furthermore, there are children who are ready to be trafficked due to their poverty or family abuse. The peculiarity of the issue of child trafficking is that it violates human rights and oppresses their dignity.

The factors contributing to child trafficking are poverty, family problems, poor security and governmental gaps in the visa control. Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Columbia, Chile, Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina are the centers of child trafficking. The policy of these countries benefits the growth of this crime.

The general hypothesis of the research is “South America is a place that contributes child trafficking”. The specific or sub-hypotheses of the study are:

(H1): Economic growth and tourism benefit child trafficking.

(H2): Anti-trafficking laws are not as severe as they should be.

(H3): Poverty and family issues lead to sexual and labor exploitation.

The data necessary to test these hypotheses will be derived from secondary data sources. The methodological assessment of this research is based on some critical information and the effect of child trafficking. The study also uses dependent and independent variables in the work that help identify the strengths and weaknesses of the paper from different angles.

One can say that the hypothesis has been fully proved. Literature review confirms that child trafficking is one of the leading problems in South America. It is a result of tourism development and ineffective policy of governments. Firstly, the countries of South America suffer from poverty. Therefore, children can be ready to become the victims of trafficking for the sake of financial benefits of their families. Secondly, officials are also interested in child trafficking as it is a way of getting money.

Discussion

It has been proved that child trafficking is an alarming problem for South America. To solve this issue one should apply the preventive measures. First of all, the governments should control tourism and different entertainment events and check them for child exploitation and trafficking. Secondly, families and school should pay more attention to kids’ education. The new anti-trafficking laws are necessary to increase efforts of struggling against child trafficking in South America. Moreover, these laws will benefit investigation, prosecution, conviction, and punishment of trafficking offenders. However, the problem is enough complicated due to the involvement of public officials in trafficking crimes.

Moreover, one recommends involving the UNISEF in assistance of governments in strengthening services, policies, and laws benefiting anti-trafficking policy. One needs also reforms and reviews to support an access of children to education and establish labor standards. The communities of the states described above should change practices and norms to minimize children's vulnerability to trafficking and other crimes. The process of child protection includes such stages as victim and offender identification, placing victims in a safe place, and providing them with the necessary protection. Moreover, such kids need the psychological support, health care, and reintegration with the community and family. The government should provide health workers, police, social workers, and border officials to work with the abused children.

It is evident that this research paper has its limitations. First of all, it is restricted by the choice of the subject. The project is devoted only to child trafficking. However, most articles are devoted to female trafficking. Secondly, this research paper is restricted by the scope of research, which is limited to South America. However, it will be more subjective if to compare with other continents. Without a doubt, these restrictions do not lessen the importance of this research paper but provide some grounds for a further research. The restriction of this study also concerns the lack of the available data. Some information has been obtained from the articles, but it has been not enough for a full analysis.

In conclusion, one should say that the question of child trafficking remains open for a further analysis. Most articles are devoted to the adult trafficking. Relying upon the literature review and findings one can say that South America is a center of this crime where governments and legitimacy benefit child trafficking. Not without a reason, the cases of child trafficking are difficult for the investigation. Consequently, it is recommended to implement more effective anti-trafficking laws. The strict visa control will shorten the access of traffickers to these countries and will guarantee more safety and order. Anti-trafficking collaboration should be strengthened through collaboration of the family and government.



EatonTurner
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